UCIrvine                               The Blum Group





Professor Blum


Group Members






Research Programs

Our research programs address challenges in the development of reactions for chemical synthesis. The particular focus of the laboratory involves the mechanistic and physical-organic study of reactions, producing fundamental insights that lead to the development of new reactions and the improved understanding of known reactions. To achieve this goal, we combine interdisciplinary approaches in organic, organometallic, inorganic, physical, and analytical chemistry.


41. Easter, Q. T.; Blum, S. A. “Evidence for Dynamic Chemical Kinetics at Individual Molecular Ruthenium Catalysts.” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2018, 57, 1572. [Link]

40. Issaian, A.; Tu, K. N.; Blum, S. A. “Boron Heteroatom Addition Reactions via Borylative Heterocyclization: Oxyboration, Aminoboration, and Thioboration.” Acc. Chem. Res. 2017, 50, 2598. [Link]

39. Easter, Q. T.; Blum, S. A. “Single Turnover at Molecular Polymerization Catalysts Reveals Spatiotemporally Resolved Reactions.” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 56, 13772. [Link]

Highlighted in UCI News Brief, “Little green flashes unlock secrets of catalytic reactions”. [Link]

38. Issaian, A.; Faizi, D. J.; Bailey, J. O.; Mayer, P.; Berionni, G.; Singleton, D. A.; Blum, S. A. “Mechanistic Studies of Formal Thioboration Reactions of Alkynes.” J. Org. Chem. 2017, 82, 8165. [Link]

37. Kazuhiro, K.; Blum, S. A. "Structure–Reactivity Studies of Intermediates for Mechanistic Information by Subensemble Fluorescence Microscopy." ACS Catal20177, 3786. [Link]

36. Feng, C.; Easter, Q. T.; Blum, S. A. "Structure–Reactivity Studies, Characterization, and Transformation of Intermediates by Lithium Chloride in the Direct Insertion of Alkyl and Aryl Iodides to Metallic Zinc Powder." Organometallics 2017, 36, 2389. [Link]

Organometallics, Cover, July 2017:

35. Faizi, D. J.; Davis, A. J.; Meany, F. B.; Blum, S. A. "Catalyst-Free Formal Thioboration to Synthesize Borylated Benzothiophenes and Dihydrothiophenes." Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 201655, 14286. [Link]

Highlighted in Synfacts 201713, 71. "Ring-forming Thioboration of C–C π-Bonds." [Link]

34. Feng, C.; Cunningham, D. W.; Easter, Q. T.; Blum, S. A. "Role of LiCl in Generating Soluble Organozinc Reagents." J. Am. Chem. Soc2016138, 11156. [Link]

Highlighted in Org. Process Res. Dev. 201620, 1691. "Some Items of Interest to Process R&D Chemists and Engineers." [Link]

33. Faizi, D. J.; Nava, N. A.; Al-Amin, M.; Blum, S. A. "Oxyboration: Synthesis of Borylated Benzofurans." Org. Synth. 201693, 228. [Link]

32. Johnson, J. S.; Chong, E.; Tu, K. N.; Blum, S. A. "Kinetic Study of Carbophilic Lewis Acid Catalyzed Oxyboration and the Noninnocent Role of Sodium Chloride" Organometallics 201635, 655. [Link]

31. Faizi, D. J.; Issaian, A.; Davis, A. J.; Blum, S. A. "Catalyst-Free Synthesis of Borylated Lactones from Esters via Electrophilic Oxyboration" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016138, 2126. [Link]

30. Hirner, J. J.; Faizi, D. J.; Blum. S. A. Organoboron Compounds and Methods of Making Organoboron Compounds. U. S. Patent 9,238661, January 19, 2016.

29. Tu, K. N.; Hirner, J. J.; Blum, S. A. "Oxyboration with and without a Catalyst: Borylated Isoxazoles via B–O σ-Bond Addition." Org. Lett. 201618, 480. [Link]

Highlighted in Synfacts 201612, 400. [Link]


28. Chong, E.; Blum, S. A. "Aminoboration: Addition of B–N σ Bonds Across C–C π Bonds." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015137, 10144. [Link]

27. Hirner, J. J.; Blum, S. A. "NMR Spectroscopy Studies of Electronic Effects and Equilibrium in the Organogold-to-boron Transmetallation Reaction and Studies Towards Its Application to the Alkoxyboration Addition of Boron-Oxygen Sigma-Bonds to Alkynes." Tetrahedron 201571, 4445. Special invited issue in honor of Yoshi Nakao's Tetrahedron Young Investigator Award[Link]

26. Easter, Q. T.; Trauschke, V.; Blum, S. A." Catalyst Inefficiencies: Supported Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization Catalyst Yields Its Ensemble Rate from a Small Number of Molecular Active Sites." ACS Catal. 20155, 2290. [Link]

25. Al-Amin, M.; Johnson, J. S.; Blum, S. A. "Selectivity, Compatibility, Downstream Functionalization, and Silver Effect in the Gold and Palladium Dual-Catalytic Synthesis of Lactones." Organometallics 201433, 5448. [Link]

24. Hensle, E. M.; Esfandiari, N. M.; Lim, S. -G.; Blum, S. A. "BODIPY Fluorophore Toolkit for Probing Chemical Reactivity and for Tagging Reactive Functional Groups." Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2014, 3347. [Link]

EurJOC, Cover, June 2014 [Link] :

23. Blum, S. A. "Location Change Method for Imaging Chemical Reactivity and Catalysis with Single-Molecule and -Particle Fluorescence Microscopy." Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 201416, 16333. [Link]

PCCP, Cover, August 2014 [Link]:

22. Hirner, J. J.; Faizi, D. J.; Blum, S. A. "Alkoxyboration: Ring-Closing Addition of B–O Sigma Bonds Across Alkynes." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014136, 4740. [Link]

Highlighted in Science 2014344, 10. "A Big Break for Boron." [Link]

Organoboron building blocks for drug discovery from this paper are available from Sigma-Aldrich. [Link]

21. Al-Amin, M.; Roth, K. E.; Blum, S. A. "Mechanistic Studies of Gold and Palladium Cooperative Dual-Catalytic Cross-Coupling Systems." ACS Catal. 20144, 622. [Link]

20. Cordes, T.; Blum, S. A. "Opportunities and challenges in single-molecule and single-particle fluorescence microscopy for mechanistic studies of chemical reactions." Nat. Chem. 20135, 993. [Link]

19. Fast, A.; Esfandiari, N. M.; Blum, S. A. "Small Number of Active Sites and Single-Locus Kinetics Revealed in (salph)Co-Catalyzed Ethylene Oxide Polymerization." ACS Catal. 20133, 2150. [Link]

18. Hensle, E. M; Blum, S. A. "Phase Separation Polymerization of Dicyclopentadiene Characterized by In Operando Fluorescence Microscopy." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013135, 12324. [Link]

17. Hirner, J. J.; Roth, K. E.; Shi, Y.; Blum, S. A. "Mechanistic Studies of Azaphilic versus Carbophilic Activation by Gold(I) in the Gold/Palladium Dual-Catalyzed Rearrangement of Alkenyl Vinyl Aziridines." Organometallics 201231, 6843. [Link]

16. Gladysz, J. A.; Ball, Z. T.; Bertrand, G.; Blum, S. A.; Dong, V. M.; Dorta, R.; Hahn, F. E.; Humphrey, M. G.; Jones, W. D.; Klosin, J.; Manners, I.; Marks, T. J.; Mayer, J. M.; Rieger, B.; Ritter, J.; Sattelberger, A. P.; Schomaker, J. "Organometallics Roundtable 2011." Organometallics 201231, 1. [Link]

15. Cornell, T. P.; Shi, Y.; Blum, S. A. "Synthesis of Alkenylgold(I) Compounds via Sequential Hydrozirconation and Zirconium to Gold Transmetalation." Organometallics 2012, 31, 5990. [Link]

14. Esfandiari, N. M.; Blum, S. A. "Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous Polymerization Catalysis Revealed by Single-Particle Fluorescence Microscopy." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011133, 18145. [Link]

Highlighted Editor's Choice, Science 2011334, 1034. "A Probe of Homogeneity." [Link]

13. Esfandiari, N. M.; Wang, Y.; Bass, J. Y.; Blum, S. A. "Deconvoluting Subensemble Chemical Reaction Kinetics of Platinum–Sulfur Ligand Exchange Detected with Single-Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy." Inorg. Chem. 201150, 9201. [Link]

12. Roth, K. E.; Blum, S. A. "Direct Observation of Gold/Palladium Transmetalation in an Organogold Heck Reaction." Organometallics 201130, 4811. [Link]

11. Hirner, J. J.; Shi, Y.; Blum, S. A. "Organogold Reactivity with Palladium, Nickel, and Rhodium: Transmetalation, Cross-Coupling, and Dual Catalysis." Acc. Chem. Res. 201144, 603.[Link]

One of the "Most Read" Accounts articles

10. Shi, Y.; Blum, S. A. "Gold and Rhodium Transmetalation: Mechanistic Insights and Dual-Metal Reactivity." Organometallics 201130, 1776. [Link]

9. Hirner, J. J.; Blum, S. A. "Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Organogold Reagents." Organometallics 2011, 30, 1299. [Link]

8. Esfandiari, N. M.; Wang, Y.; Mcintire, T. M.; Blum, S. A. "Real-Time Imaging of Platinum-Sulfur Ligand Exchange Reactions at the Single-Molecule Level via a General Chemical Technique." Organometallics 201030, 2901. [Link]

Organometallics Cover, June 2011:

7. Esfandiari, N. M.; Wang, Y.; Bass, J. Y.; Cornell, T. P.; Otte, D. A. L.; Cheng, M. H.; Hemminger, J. C.; Mcintire, T. M.; Mandelshtam, V. A.; Blum, S. A. "Single-Molecule Imaging of Platinum Ligand Exchange Reaction Reveals Reactivity Distribution." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010132, 15167. [Link]

Highlighted in Chem. & Eng. News 201088 (36), 14.

Journal of the American Chemical Society Cover, November 2010:


6. Roth, K. E.; Blum, S. A. "Relative Kinetic Basicities of Organogold Compounds." Organometallics 2010, 29, 1712. [Link]

5. Shi, Y.; Roth, K. E.; Ramgren, S. D.; Blum, S. A. "Catalyzed Catalysis Using Carbophilic Lewis Acidic Gold and Lewis Basic Palladium: Synthesis of Substituted Butenolides and Isocoumarins." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009131, 18022. [Link]

4. Lim, S.-G.; Blum, S. A. "A General Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Method for Observation and Quantification of Organometallic Complexes under Reaction Conditions." Organometallics 200928, 4643. [Link]

3. Shi, Y.; Ramgren, S. D.; Blum, S. A. "Palladium-Catalyzed Carboauration of Alkynes and Palladium/Gold Cross-Coupling." Organometallics 200928, 1275. [Link]

One of the 10 "Most Read" Organometallics papers in twelve months

Highlighted in ACS-Petroleum Research Fund Feature Story, "A Synergy of Synthetic Chemistry"

2. Canham, S. M.; Bass, J. Y.; Navarro, O.; Lim, S. G.; Das, N.; Blum, S. A. "Toward the Single-Molecule Investigation of Organometallic Reaction Mechanisms: Single-Molecule Imaging of Fluorophore-Tagged Palladium(II) Complexes." Organometallics 200827, 2172. [Link]

Highlighted in Chem. & Eng. News 200886, 43.

1. Shi, Y.; Peterson, S. M.; Haberaecker, W. W., III; Blum, S. A. "Alkynes as Stille Reaction Pseudohalides: Synthesis of Tri- and Tetra-Substituted Olefins." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008130, 2168. [Link]

Highlighted in Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 200847, 5703. [Link]