Modulation of the MALT1 pre-mRNA structure by hnRNP proteins regulates T cell activation

Abstract: Alternative splicing is controlled by differential binding of trans-acting RNA binding proteins (RBPs) to cis-regulatory pre-mRNA elements. How pre-mRNA secondary structure affects recognition by RBPs and determines alternative exon usage is poorly understood. The MALT1 paracaspase is a key component of signaling pathways that mediate innate and adaptive immune responses. Alternative splicing of MALT1 exon7 is critical for controlling optimal T cell activation.

Transport and Spectroscopy in Quantum Junctions

Extending thermodynamic concepts to nonequilibrium systems has been a long standing problem. In recent years, there have been some remarkable developments in this regard. Some exact relations, known as fluctuation relations (FRs), have been derived and experimentally verified for systems out-of-equilibrium [1,2,3]. One class of non-equilibrium systems is molecular or quantum junctions which can easily be driven and maintained arbitrarily far from their equilibrium conditions [4] by applying external bias or thermal gradient.

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