Transport and Spectroscopy in Quantum Junctions

Extending thermodynamic concepts to nonequilibrium systems has been a long standing problem. In recent years, there have been some remarkable developments in this regard. Some exact relations, known as fluctuation relations (FRs), have been derived and experimentally verified for systems out-of-equilibrium [1,2,3]. One class of non-equilibrium systems is molecular or quantum junctions which can easily be driven and maintained arbitrarily far from their equilibrium conditions [4] by applying external bias or thermal gradient.


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